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Key: Psilidae
This key aims to inlcude all European species of the family Psilidae. It is based on the publications listed below and figures have been taken from these to supplement the key. If any of the figures should not be used because of copyright issues, please notify me a.s.a.p. and they will be removed. Any comments are welcome.
References
Buck, M., & S.A. Marshall, 2006. Revision of New World Loxocera (Diptera: Psilidae), with phylogenetic redefinition of Holarctic subgenera and species groups. - European Journal of Entomology - 103(1): 193-219.
Bygebjerg, R., Munk, T. & J. Elnif, 2011. Chyliza leguminicola Melander, 1920 (Diptera: Psilidae) new to the Palaearctic fauna. - Entomologiske Meddelelser 79(2): 73-84.
Carles-Tolrá, M., 1993a. A new species of Chamaepsila Hendel from the Czech Republic, with a key to the bicolor-group species (Diptera, Psilidae). - Graellsia 49: 91-95.
Carles-Tolrá, M., 1993b. Two new species of Psilidae and Tethinidae from Spain (Diptera). - Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 124: 250-253.
Freidberg, A., & A.I. Shatalkin, 2008. The Psilidae (Diptera) of Israel, with emphasis on the Chamaepsila hebraica group. - Israel Journal of Entomology 38: 35-60.
Goot, V.S. van der, & M.P. van Veen, 1987. De spillebeenvliegen, wortelvliegen en wolzwevers van Noordwest-Europa, in het bijzonder van Nederland. Eerste druk. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, Utrecht. 60 pp.
Hennig W., 1941, Psilidae. - In: Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region 5(41) (E. Lindner, ed.): 1-38, pl. 1-4. E. Schweizerbart, Stuutgart.
Roháček, J., M. Barták & J. Preisler, 2016. New records of Psilidae, Piophilidae, Lauxaniidae, Cremifaniidae and Sphaeroceridae (Diptera) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. - Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales 65(1): 51-62.
Shatalkin, A.I., & B. Merz, 2010. The Psilidae (Diptera, Acalyptrata) of Switzerland, with description of two new species from Central Еuгоре. - Revue Suisse de Zoologie 117(4): 771-800.
Soós, Á., 1985. Untersuchungen einiger Psilide-Typen aus der Zetterstedt'schen Sammlung nebst Beschreibung einer neuen Art (Diptera: Psilidae). - Acta Zoologica Hungarica 31(1-3): 235-244.
Wang, X., 1988. Bestimmungstabelle der westpaläarktischen Chamaepsila-Arten (Diptera: Psilidae). - Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie A (Biologie) 417: 1-13.
Last modified 27/11/2020 13:56 by Paul BeukNo of couplets: 57

Return to List of Keys
Key
1a
First flagellomere at least four times as long as pedicel.
2
b
First flagellomere at most four times as long as pedicel.
9
 
2a
Frontal index larger than 1,5. Antennae distinctly separated at their bases, the distance between them about the same as the distance between the antennal base and the eye. Hind femur ventral withou a field of short hairs.
No European species.
Tropeopsila Shatalkin, 1983
 
b
Frontal index less than 1,5. Antennae more closely approximated at their bases. Hind femur ventrally near apex with a field of short hairs.
3
 
3a
Frontal vitta sclerotized, (sub)shining; lunule sclerotized and broadly exposed between antennal base and anterior margin of frons (rarely withdrawn in dry specimens) . Alula bare except margin. Male pregenital sclerite large and exposed, setulose (pgs). Female cerci contiguous with tergite 10 but separate .
Loxocera Meigen, 1803
4
b
Frontal vitta desclerotized, velvetty and dull; lunule usually hidden , at most very narrowly exposed between antennal base and anterior margin of frons. Alula microtrichose. Male pregenital sclerite small and withdrawn, bare. Female cerci completely fused to tergite 10, forming one continuous sclerite .
Imantimyia Frey, 1925
6
 
4a
Scape, pedicel and first flagellomere all elongate; arista thickened and inserted about halfway the first flagellomere ; arista white with yellowish base. Head, thorax and abdomen glossy brownish black but basal abdominal segments rather reddish brown. Legs yellowish brown but femora darker. 10-12 mm.
Loxocera Meigen, 1803 subgenus PlatystylaMacquart, 1835
Loxocera (Platystyla) hoffmannseggi Meigen, 1826
 
b
Only the first flagellomere elongate; Ariste thickened at base only and inserted near base of first flagellomere  .
Loxocera Meigen, 1803 sensu stricto
5
 
5a
Head black, but genae with a small paler marking and frontal vitta yellowish brown. Abdomen black but somehwta brownish laterally. Thorax yellowish brown but mesonotum blackish anteriorly. Legs yellow. 7-10 mm.
Loxocera (Loxocera) aristata (Fanzer, 1801)
 
b
Head black, but genae yelllow and frontal vitta yellowish brown. Abdomen blackish but with yellow base and lateral markins. 8-9 mm.
Loxocera (Loxocera) maculata Rondani, 1876
 
 
6a
Arista with short hairs, virtually invisible at low magnification . Face black medially with yellow lateral parts or entirely black.
7
b
Arista with distinct hairs . Face entirely yellow.
8
 
7a
Postpronotum yellow. Frons with frontal vitta black, lateral parts yellow; face black with yellow lateral parts. Genae broader, lower part of vertex and genae yellow. Thgorax yellow with dark marking on anterior part of mesonotum. Abdomen brownish black. Legs yellow. 4-6 mm.
Imantimyia sylvatica Meigen, 1826
 
b
Postpronotum dark. Frons entirely black, if not entirely black then not as described for the species above. Face entirelky black but lateral parts with narrow strips with silvery pilosity. Genae narrower, lower part of vertex blackish. Abdomen brownish black. Legs yellow. 4-5 mm.
Imantimyia fulviventris Meigen, 1826
 
 
8a
Head yellow but frontal vitta and upper part of vertex black. Scutelluum yellow. Arista white. Thorax yellowish with postpronotum and anterior part of mesonotum black. Abdomen black. Legs yellow. Larger species: 7-9 mm.
Imantimyia albiseta (Schrank, 1803)
 
b
Frons and scutellum entirely black. Smaller species: 5-7 mm.
Imantimyia nigrifrons (Macquart, 1835)
 
 
9a
Height of peristoma less than 1/3 of eye diameter . Anal cell (A) distinctly shorter than second basal cell (2B) . Vertex flat. Vibrissal area in lateral view angular . Males: hypopygium with surstyli. 2-3 pairs of scutellar setae.
Chyliza Fallén, 1820
10
b
Height of peristoma larger than 1/3 of eye diameter . Anal cell (A) about as long as second basal cell . Vertex somewhat convex. Vibrissal area in lateral view rounded. Males: hypopygium without surstyli.
16
 
10a
Arista with dense black pubescence.
Chyliza Fallén, 1820, subgenus Dasyna Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830
11
b
Arista with normal white pubescence.
12
 
11a
Head completely black; first flagellomere more than twice as long as wide. Hind tibia without black area. Body length 5–5.5 mm - Europe, Middle East and Turkmenistan.
Chyliza (Dasyna) extenuata (Rossi, 1790)
 
b
Head mainly yellow, only occiput partly black; first flagellomere twice as long as wide. Hind tibia with large lateral black area on apical 2/3. Body length 4.5–5 mm - Iran.
Chyliza (Dasyna) qaradaghi Khaghaninia & Gharajedaghi, 2014
 
 
12a
Eyes small in relation to head . Wings dark, especially darkened along costa . Femora typically all predominantly black (on some specimens the black area is reduced on the hind pair). Male genitalia: . Often only 2 pairs of bristles on scutellum.
Chyliza (Chyliza) leguminicola Melander, 1920
 
b
Eyes large in relation to head: . Wings predominantly hyaline; apex darkened, but the dark area along costa is restricted to at most apical half of the wing. Femora all predominantly yellow. Male genitalia different. 3 pairs of bristles on scutellum (or very rarely 4 pairs).
10
 
13a
Thorax yellow with brown or blackish brown longitudinal stripes laterally and sometimes dorsally. Back of the head and frons entirely or mostly yellow. Legs yellow (or with brownish sub-apical band on hind femora).
Chyliza (Chyliza) vittata Meigen, 1826
 
b
Thorax black (except humeri and scutellum). Back of the head and frons all or mostly black.
14
 
14a
Femora yellow with black rings near tip.
Chyliza (Chyliza) annulipes Macquart, 1835
 
b
Femora yellow.
 
 
15a
Male front tibia with row of small black erect spines . Male sternite 6 with central part narrow and with large spines posteriorly . Female with second antennal segment brownish above, and dorsal side of humeri usually entirely black.
Chyliza (Chyliza) leptogaster (Panzer, 1798)
 
b
Male front tibia with row of small black adpressed “humpback-shaped” spines . Male sternite 6 with central part broad and somewhat triangular, and with only small spines . Female with second antennal segment yellowish above and dorsal side of humeri usually yellow.
Chyliza (Chyliza) nova Collin, 1944
 
 
16a
Neither npl nor sa present. Male: Hind femur thickened and bent . Females with peculiarly built ovipositor .
Psilosoma Zetterstedt, 1860
17
b
Npl and sa present. Male: hind femur normally built. Females with simple ovipositor.
18
 
17a
No ors. No dc fe blen. Male hind femur with a tooth ventrally at base . Mesonotum with brown pattern.
Psilosoma audouini (Zetterstedt, 1835)
 
b
1 ors. 1 dc. Male hind femur without basal tooth . Mesonotum without brown pattern.
Psilosoma lefebvrei (Zetterstedt, 1835)
 
 
18a
Anepimeron with soft, fine setulae in posterior half; роstосеllаг setae absent (ехсерt for some Asian species); tarsus of mid leg ventrally with short, black setulae scattered among the golden setulae.
19
b
Anepimeron bare; one postocellar seta present (except for most
specimens of Ch. setalba Freidberg & Shatalkin and the East Palaearctic species Ch. nigripalpis); tarsus of mid leg ventrally with short yellow setulae.
Chamaepsila Hendel, 1933
23
 
19a
First flagellomere about 2.5 times as long as its width at base, yellow but dark infuscated along dorsal margin; abdomen brownish to black; thorax yellow or reddish yellow with a darker stripe laterally the level of the supra-alar seta and the dorsal half of the anepisternum; dorsocentral setae absent. Body length: 6-1-7.3 mm. - Europe and Caucasus.
Oxypsila Frey, 1925
Oxypsila abdominalis (Schummel, 1844)
 
b
First flagellomere at most 1.5 times as long as its width at base, if yellow then without darkened dorsal margin; colouration of thorax different; one dorsocentral seta.
Psila Meigen, 1803
20
 
20a
First flagellomere mostly black.
21
b
First flagellomere yellow, at most at base of arista with darkened spot.
22
 
21a
Mesonotum and subscutellum yellow. Body length: 6.7-7.2 mm. -
Caucasus.
Psila caucasica Mik, 1887
 
b
Mesonotum yellow, but with an unpaired black stripe medially extended almost to scutellum, and with a pair of black stripes from posterior end of postpronotal lobe to level of dorsocentral seta (sometimes these black stripes may be confluent). Subscutellum black. Body length: 6.5- 7.0 mm. - Switzerland.
Psila helvetica Shatalkin & Merz, 1910
 
 
22a
Eye kidney-shaped, distinctly higher than wide; first flagellomere at base of arista with black spot; rays of arista about twice as long as its basal diameter . Body length: 7.7-8.8 mm. - Europe.
Psila fimetaria (Linnaeus, 1761)
 
b
Eye roundish, only slightly higher than wide; first flagellomere entirely yellow; rays of arista at most only little longer than its basal diameter . Body length: 8.3-8.5 mm - Europe
Psila merdaria Collin, 1944
 
 
23a
Two pairs of sc.
24
b
One pair of sc.
25
 
24a
Head with two large, brown lateral occipital spots. Thorax with a brown band from postpronotum to base of halters. Halters blackish. Body length 4.5 mm.
Chamaepsila longipennis (Séguy, 1936)
 
b
Head without distinct occipital spots. Thorax without brown band. Halters yellowish. BM-cu often partly or entirely reduced. Body length 6-7 mm. Male genitalia:  .
Chamaepsila obscuritarsis (Loew, 1856)
 
 
25a
pvt absent. 3 mm. Poland, Germany.
Head yellowish, arista white haired; body blackish, legs yellow, thoracic setae yellow. 1 dc, 2 vt.
Chamaepsila problematica Hennig, 1941
 
b
pvt present.
26
 
26a
3-5 pairs of dc.
27
b
1-2 pairs of dc.
34
 
27a
Prsc present.
28
b
Prsc absent
29
 
28a
Phallus strongly sclerotized and serrated, pointed ; epandrium 1.8–2.0 times as high as long in lateral view ; generally darker species, with head and legs usually dark brown to black; frontofacial angle usually less prominent, and parafacial usually narrower (compare ).
Chamaepsila friedmani Freidberg & Shatalkin, 2008
 
b
Phallus not strongly sclerotized and not serrated, blunt ; epandrium 2.5–3.0 times as high as long in lateral view ; generally paler species, with head and legs often yellow; frontofacial angle often prominent, parafacial sometimes half as wide as eye length .
Chamaepsila hebraica Hennig, 1941
 
 
29a
Legs unicoorous yellow. Head yellow except for posterior part of frons and dorsdal part of vertex.
Chamaepsila villosula (Meigen, 1826)
 
b
Legs not completely yellow. Head black.
30
 
30a
Tibiae and tarsi yellow, last tarsomeres brownish; femora black except at knees. 3 dc.
Note: According to Van der Goot & Van Veen (1987) the leg colour of Chamaepsila atra is similar but in other keys it is included among the species with entirely black legs. All specimens with 4 dc should be keyed following the other option in this couplet.
31
b
Legs completely black. 3-4 dc.
32
 
31a
Antennae dark. Mid and hind tibiae brown.
Chamaepsila nigra (Fallén, 1820)
 
b
Antennae yellowish brown, at most darkened dorsally and apically on first flagellomere . Mid and hind tibiae yellow.
Chamaepsila tenebrica (Shatalkin, 1986)
 
 
32a
3 dc.
Chamaepsila morio (Zetterstedt, 1835)
 
b
4 dc.
33
 
33a
Male genitalia: The two branches of the basal plate are blunt and broadly rounded. Female ovipositor: segment 7 is narrow and has become part of the ovipositor. Male genitalia:  . Body entirely black. 3-4 mm.
Chamaepsila atra (Meigen, 1826)
 
b
Male genitalia: The two branches of the basal plate end in a curved finger-like projection. Female ovipositor: segment 7 is similar to segemnt 6 with the ovipositor protruding from it. Body entirely black. 3.5 mm.
Chamaepsila clunalis (Collin, 1944)
 
 
34a
1 dc.
35
b
2 dc.
43
 
35a
2 vt.
36
b
3 vt.
38
 
36a
Thorax and abdomen reddish yellow.
Chamaepsila rufa (Meigen, 1826)
 
b
Body black. First flagellomere black.
When pvt absent and first flagellomere yellow, check problematica.
37
 
37a
1 ors. Male genitalia: .
Chamaepsila buccata (Fallén, 1826)
 
b
2 ors. Male genitalia: .
Chamaepsila rozkosnyi Carles-Tolrá, 1993
 
 
38a
Mesonotum and pleura dark, postpronotum and propleura usually paler, sometime whole of pleura brownish.
Chamaepsila limbatella (Zetterstedt, 1847)
 
b
Thorax predominantly yellow, upper part of pleura or mesonotum may have stripes or other dark markings.
39
 
39a
Thorax with black setae.
40
b
Thorax with yellow setae.
41
 
40a
Inner side of epandrium with 1-2 strong teeth , paramere with 1 strong internal subbasal tooth and slightly teethted ventrally . Mesonotum generally uniformly yellow, without longitudinal
dark bands, metanotum brown.
Chamaepsila bicolor (Meigen, 1826)
 
b
Inner side of epandrium with only small or very small teeth , paramere with small posterior teeth . Mesonotum generally with longitudinal dark bands, metanotum brown.
Chamaepsila quadrilineata (Strobl, 1898)
 
 
41a
One orbital seta. Mesonotum with a medial longitudinal dark brown band, disappearing before the transversal suture, not reaching the scutellum. Metanotum brown. Epandrium and paramere: .
Chamaepsila ephippium (Zetterstedt, 1847)
 
b
Two orbital setae. Mesonotum without longitudinal bands.
42
 
42a
Inner side of epandrium with many small teeth, paramere sligthly teethted laterally . Mesonotum and metanotum pale yellow.
Chamaepsila pseudobicolor Soós, 1985
 
b
Inner side of epandrium without teeth , paramere without teeth . Mesonotum with an anteromedial dark brown triangular spot , metanotum brown.
Chamaepsila martineki Carles-Tolrá, 1993
 
 
43a
2 vt.
44
b
3 vt.
45
 
44a
Anterior part of frons yellow, posterior part with a dark undulating transverse band. Femora with narrow ventral dark stripe.
Chamaepsila nigrotaeniata (Strobl, 1899)
 
b
Head predominantly yellow. Femora ventrally without dark stripe.
Chamaepsila sardoa (Rondani, 1876)
 
 
45a
Mesonotum entirely yellow.
46
b
Mesonotum yellow with black stripes or entirely black.
51
 
46a
Subscutellum brown or black at least medially. Arista long setulose, rays longer than basal diameter of arista .
(= Ch. pallida auct. nec. Fallén)
Chamaepsila unilineata (Zetterstedt, 1847) partim
 
b
Subscutellum yellow. Arista short setulose, rays shorter than basal
diameter of arista.
47
 
47a
Abdominal tergites black, Palpus apically black.
48
b
Abdominal tergites yellow. Palpus yellow, or narrowly brownish apically.
50
 
48a
3 fronto-orbital setae present. Frons yellow, with a transverse black
stripe dorsally the lunule. Body length: 3.45 mm. - Hungary.
Chamaepsila triorbiseta Papp, 2003
 
b
1-2 fronto-orbital setae present. Frons yellow throughout.
49
 
49a
First flagellomere black. Setae on head and thorax ranging from yellow (specimens from the Caucasus) to dark brown (specimens from Northern Italy). Body length: 3.3 mm. - Russia (Caucasus), Italy.
Chamaepsila andreji (Shatalkin, 1996)
 
b
First flagellomere mainly yellow, with a darkened dorsal margin. Setae on head and thorax black. Body length: 4.5 mm. - Finland, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia (Moscow area).
Chamaepsila nigrosetosa Frey, 1925
 
 
50a
First flagellomere yellow. Setae on head and thorax light yellow. Male genitalia:  . Body length: 4.0-5.0 mm. - Europe, Mongolia (?).
Chamaepsila pallida (Fallén, 1820)
 
b
First flagellomere mainly yellow, with a darkened dorsal margin. Palpus often narrowly brownish apically. Setae on head and thorax brownish yellow. Body length: 4.0 mm. - Great Britain, Denmark, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia (Moscow area).
Chamaepsila luteola (Collin, 1944)
 
 
51a
Mesonotum yellow, with 3 longitudinal stripes. Pleuron yellow.
First flagellomere mainly yellow, sometimes with a darkened dorsal margin. Arista long setulose, rays longer than basal diameter of arista . Male: Aedeagus narrow and paramere with four large eeth . Body length: 4.0-5.0 mm - Europe.
Chamaepsila unilineata (Zetterstedt, 1847) partim
 
b
Mesonotum entirely black Other characters variable.
52
 
52a
Pleuron black, or black with a yellowish spot dorsally the anterior spiracle.
53
b
Pleuron partly or entirely yellow, at least postpronotal lobe yellow.
56
 
53a
Pleuron with a yellowish spot dorsally the anterior spiracle. Praelabrum yellow.
54
b
Pleuron entirely black. Praelabrum black.
55
 
54a
Palpus yellow, rarely brownish infuscated. First flagellomere black but yellow ventrally at base. Male genitalia:   . Body length: 3.5-3.8 mm. - Europe.
Chamaepsila persimilis (Wakerley, 1959)
 
b
Palpus black in apical half. First flagellomere entirely black. Male genitalia: . Body length: 3.7-4.2 mm. - France, Switzerland.
Chamaepsila confusa Shatalkin & Merz, 2010
 
 
55a
First flagellomere black, but with a small yellow spot dorsally at base around and/or basally the insertion of the arista. Male genitalia: . Body length: 3.2-3.8 mm. - Holarctic species.
The colour of the first flagellomere is unreliable according to Van der Goor & Van veen (1987) and only the male genitalia provide unambiguous identification. As a result, females cannot be reliably identified, unless collected in copula.
Chamaepsila rosae (Fabricius, 1794)
 
b
First flagellomere entirely black. Male genitalia: . Body length: 3.4-4.2 mm. - Palaearctic, Oriental (Myanmar), Afrotropical (Kenya?) Regions.
Chamaepsila nigricornis (Meigen, 1826)
 
 
56a
Pleuron black, but postpronotal lobe (always) and sometimes also anepimeron yellow. Body length: 2.8-3.7 mm. - Europe.
Chamaepsila humeralis (Zetterstedt, 1847)
 
b
At least ventral half of pleuron yellow.
57
 
57a
Pleuron entirely yellow. Body length: 2.7-3.2 mm. - Europe.
Chamaepsila pectoralis (Meigen, 1826)
 
b
Pleuron bicoloured, dorsal half black, ventral half yellow. Body length: 3.0 mm. - Montenegro.
Chamaepsila strigata (Collin, 1959)
 
 
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